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Generaly Adjoint is a method for propagation of sensitivities from a selected objective function throughout the code (backwards) until the design parameters. This allows for an efficient calculation of the sensitivity (gradient) of the objective with respect to any number of parameters or variables.

It is very hard to achieve, as it is a highly intrusive method (the numerical code have to be specially designed to allow for it), andeven harder to make efficient. The TCLB code introduced Adjoint into the source code quite early on, allowing for a well parallelized and fast adjoint implementation, but making some parts of the code quite cumbersome.

The main gain of the code begin able to perform adjoint calculation is the gradient information. Such information can be used for gradient-based optimization algorithms. Such algorithms perform much better in the cases with a high number of parameters (which is the case both in Topology Optimization, and Open Loop Optimal Control).

In any gradient-based optimization done with an Adjoint code, there are three things to separate:

  • Primal - The primal problem to solve (in our case it can be CFD done with LBM)
  • Adjoint - The adjoint problem, which calculates the sensitivities of the objective to all variables in the code (including the design parameters)
  • Optimziation Algorithm - The algorithm which takes the gradient information and uses it to change the desing variables to achieve the best value of the objective function.

For the second end third thing to work, we need two things to be defined:

  • Objective function -- let's call it
  • The set of design parameters (together with bonds on them) -- let's call them

To understand the mechanisms of sensitivity propagation in TCLB, we can divide adjoint computations into two types: steady and unsteady. If the Primal problem has a stationary solution , this means that is a solution to a fixed point iteration . This in turn means that the Adjoint problem can be similarly formulated as a fixed point problem. This makes solving it much simpler, and allows us to iterate it in a simple way. On the other hand we have usteady Primal problems. By them we mean solutions in which the time evolution of e.g. the flow is important, not the final (converged) solution. In such case adjoint has to propagate the sensitivities throughout the whole iterative process starting at the end of the primal simulation, and going backwards. It's easy to notice that the latter type of adjoint is much more computationally challenging.

Setting up Adjoint Calculations

The need for Adjoint calculation have to be declared in the xml configuration of the computation case. As we mentioned earlier, adjoint is a method of propagation of sensitivity, so we need first to define the objective function. In TCLB we declare the objective as a combination of Globals. For each Global (e.g. Flux) we have a Setting (e.g. FluxInObj), which controls what is the weight of said Global (e.g. Flux) in the overall objective. For instance we can set:

<Params FluxInObj="1.0"/> <Params HeatInObj="-2.0"/>

this will mean that: Objective=Flux-2*Heat. When we have a objective defined we can run the adjoint calculation.

Steady Adjoint

Steady Adjoint calculation is a process of iterating the adjoint fixed point problem. You can request it with:

<Adjoint Iterations="1000" type="steady"/>

This should be done only after converging the primal problem. Otherwise the results would not be representative.

One-shot Optimization

For steady adjoint we can run an additional type of calculation. It is what sometimes is called one-shot optimization. Each run of this approach make one iteration of primal solution, one iteration of the adjoint, and one iteration of a simple optimization algorithm. This allows for simultanious convergence of Primal and Adjoint problems, and optimization. This is implemented only for topology optimization. The optimization algorithm is the simplest steepest descent approach, moving the parameters in the direction of the gradient by a specific small coeficient. In each iteration parameters is moved by , where (Descent) is the speed of change. The one-shot optimization can be run with:

<Params Descent="0.1"/>
<OptSolve Iterations="1000"/>

Unsteady Adjoint

Unsteady Adjoint is the backwards propagation of sensitivities for an objective throughout a fixed-time-interval solution. The solution have to be declared inside of the <Adjoint/> element. For instance:

<Adjoint type="unsteady" NumberOfSnaps="14">
  <Solve Iterations="1000"/>

This declares that we wan to make 1000 iterations of the primal problem, and we want to calculate the gradient of the objective throughout the 1000 iterations. This will run 1000 iterations forward, and then 1000 iterations backwards. Such backwards calculation need to store the primal solution. Storing the whole solution (1000 iterations) would be very expensive. What why we declare how many in-memory snapshots we want to store (NumberOfSnaps="14"). The solver can use more snapshots, but the rest will be stored on disk.

It is important to notice, that if we declare a <VTK/> output, the VTK files will be written both on the way forward and backwards. The backwards run will overwrite the forward ones.

Defining parameters

For any optimization we need to define the design parameters (). In TCLB we have two main type of parameters. Field/Topology parameters, are parameters perscribed different in different elements of the mesh. Control parameters are Zonal Settings perscribed different in different iterations. This means that the first type of parameters can describe geometrical information, and the second can describe some time-dependend process.

Field Parameter

If in the model we have some Parameter defined (e.g. AddDensity(name="w", parameter=TRUE)) we can use this field for optimization:

<FieldParameter field="w" where="DesignSpace"/>

This declares that we want to use the values of field w as design parameters, but only the values in the nodes with type DesignSpace. This allows us to contraint the region in which we can modify the w field.

Optimal Control

If we have a zonal setting (e.g. AddSetting(name="MovingWallVelocity", zonal=TRUE, unit="1m/s")) we can use it as a control parameter:

<OptimalControl what="MovingWallVelocity-DefaultZone" lower="-0.1" upper="0.1"/>

This declares that the MovingWallVelocity will be optimized, with an additional upper and lower limit on the value.

Reducing the dimensionality of the parameter space

In many cases we need to reduce the number of parameters describing a time dependent setting. By default the OptimalControl describes the time dependence by having one design parameter per iteration. This means that if the signal for a setting MovingWallVelocity has 1000 iterations, we have 1000 design parameters to optimize. Some times this exactly what we want (to control value in each iteration separately). But some times we want to further parametrize that with some smooth curve. TCLB provides several elements for parameter reduction, for instance:

<BSpline order="4" nodes="10">
   <OptimalControl what="MovingWallVelocity-DefaultZone" lower="-0.1" upper="0.1"/>

Will parametrize the MovingWallVelocity control with a B-spline curve with 10 nodes and order 4. This will result in 10 control parameters. Additionaly this curve can be declared to be periodic.


Finally when we have both objective function and design parameters defined, we can run optimization. Optimization loop uses a selected optimization algorithm to get the best value of the objective, with respect to changes of the design parameters. In TCLB we use the mlopt library for optimization. In the case of steady adjoint we can also run one-shot optimization, as metioned earlier.

To run an optimization loop, you simply close the Adjoint and Primal calculation into an <Optimize/> elemenet:

<Optimize method="MMA" MaxEvaluations="100">
  <Adjoint type="unsteady">
    <Solve Iterations="1000"/>

This declares optimization with a maximum of 100 steps with the MMA